Can Matcha Fight Cancer? - HONE
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Can Matcha Fight Cancer?

  • 17 min read

Can Matcha Fight Cancer? - HONE

Matcha has become a symbol of tranquility and rejuvenation. However, beyond its cultural allure lies a growing body of scientific evidence suggesting thatmatcha may hold extraordinary potential in the fight against cancer.

Matcha tea has various health benefits, including an enhancing effect on cognitive function, cardio-metabolic health, and anti-tumorogenesis… matcha can affect proliferation, viability, antioxidant response, and cell cycle regulation of breast cancer cells. (Sokary, et. al.)

Article jumplinks:

What is matcha?

Is matcha anticancer?

Matcha and chemotherapy

Can I drink matcha every day?

Can too much matcha be bad?

Benefits of matcha tea

Central to matcha's potential cancer-fighting properties are its exceptional levels of antioxidants, particularly polyphenols, catechins, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). 

Try our matcha powder with cordyceps and see why it’s everyone’s cup of tea. 

Mushroom Matcha - 30 Serving Jar

Let’s unveil the hidden potential of matcha as we blend ancient tradition with modern science in the pursuit of a cancer-free world. 

What Is Matcha?

Matcha is a type of green tea that comes from Japan. It is made from finely ground, shade-grown leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. Matcha,green tea, black tea, white tea,and oolong tea all come from Camellia sinensis

Also known as jade leaf tea, matcha has a vibrant green color, a unique, earthy flavor, and an exceptionally high nutritional profile. Its unique cultivation and processing methods set matcha apart from other types of green tea. About three weeks before harvest, the matcha plant is shaded from direct sunlight, which helps increase the production of chlorophyll and amino acids in the tea leaves, giving matcha that bright green color we love. 

Drinking matcha green tea has some powerful health benefits. Let’s see what makes matcha a superhero among all cancer-fighting adaptogens.

Speaking of adaptogens, have you heard of Cordyceps militaris? Known as “caterpillar fungus" because it was historically found growing on the bodies of caterpillars in the wild, cordyceps mushrooms contain many bioactive compounds that can propel your health to new heights. 

Try our jar of cordyceps matcha tea and enjoy every sip of this nourishing blend. Cordyceps with matcha is a winning combination you don't want to miss.

Mushroom Matcha - 30 Serving Jar

Anticancer Properties of Matcha

Matcha is a potent source of antioxidants. Antioxidants are molecules that help shield our cells from free radical damage. Free radicals cause oxidative stress, a harmful process in the body that can damage our bodies’ natural processes, affecting anything from metabolism and reproductive health to immune function. A weak immune system is often susceptible to many diseases and conditions, like cancer.

The most abundant group of antioxidants in matcha is called polyphenols. There are more than 8,000 types of polyphenols identified, and matcha contains one of the largest polyphenolic groups, called flavonoids. 

Here are the most important antitumor properties of matcha’s polyphenols:

  • Inhibits growth of cancer cells
  • Inhibits proliferation of cancer cells
  • Interferes with signaling pathways involved in cancer cell division
  • Induces cancer cell apoptosis (programmed cell death)
  • Reduces oxidative stress
  • Prevents DNA damage

The most abundant flavonoid in matcha is a group called catechins, and the most powerful cancer-fighting catechin is epigallocatechin gallate or epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). 

To summarize: EGCG is a catechin. Catechins are part of a family of compounds known as flavonoids, which are part of a family of compounds known as polyphenols, which are antioxidants. 

Antioxidants are great, polyphenols are great, flavonoids are great, catechins are great, and EGCG is great. Drink matcha, live long, and prosper.

Matcha also contains many other beneficial compounds that fight cancer. Let’s see how they all contribute to killing cancer cells. 

EGCG Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth and Spread

EGCG is a crucial player in the fight against cancer, mainly due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.It even shows promise as a potential complementary approach to cancer treatment and prevention. 

One of the most vital ways to reduce tumors in the body is to prevent their growth and spread. According to cancer research, “EGCG was reported to exhibit an antiproliferative effect on lung cancer cells.” It modulates multiple signaling pathways involved in cell division and growth, thus slowing down the uncontrolled replication of cancer cells. Researchers investigated the effects of EGCG on the growth and survival of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and found that:

The tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits multiple signal transduction pathways in cancer cells. EGCG inhibited proliferation in a variety of NSCLC cell lines… The potential clinical relevance of this finding was supported by increased inhibition of tumor growth of erlotinib-resistant cell lines, using combined EGCG and erlotinib. These results suggest that EGCG and other polyphenols could prove efficacious alone or in combination with other targeted agents in the treatment of NSCLC.

The role of EGCG in cancer prevention and treatment. Source:

Closely related to cancer cell proliferation is metastasis. Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor to other parts of the body.EGCG has been found to hinder these invasive abilities of cancer cells, reducing the likelihood of metastasis and limiting the progression of the disease.

…inhibition of Epigallocatechin gallate on growth and metastases of colon tumor implanted orthotopically in the cecum of nude mice. The inhibition rates on tumor growth in the EGCG groups were significantly different compared with the control group. In addition, different doses of this green tea compound were able to inhibit liver and pulmonary metastases to varying degrees. (Almatroodi, et. al.)

These studies show that green tea polyphenols and EGCG could hinder cancer cell growth, promote cell death, and reduce the spread of colorectal cancers and other types of cancer. 

EGCG Induces Cancer Cell Apoptosis 

Another important way to fight cancer is to induce cancer cell death. Cell death, or apoptosis, is a natural process that helps eliminate damaged or abnormal cells from the body. Studies have shown thatEGCG induces apoptosis in cancer cells, triggering their self-destruction and preventing their uncontrolled growth.

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which constitutes the principal constituent of green tea, exhibits antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antioxidative activities. EGCG can strongly engender apoptosis and inhibit growth in several types of cancers, including colon, kidney, breast, and brain cancers as well as leukaemia… (Chen, et. al.)

According to Chen, et. al., EGCG increases the expression of p53 and Bax, important proteins that promote cell death in prostate and breast cancer cells. In bladder and breast cancer cells, it inhibits the activation of the Akt protein. This protein promotes cancer growth and spread. EGCG can activate a protein called AMPK, which plays a role in cell survival and cell death. 

EGCG Inhibits Angiogenesis in Tumors

Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to tumors. This is vital for their growth and metastasis, as tumors need blood to survive. Unfortunately for them, EGCG packs some serious anti-angiogenesis properties: it starves tumors of their blood supply and limits their expansion.

The strong antiangiogenic effect of tea catechins including EGCG, ECG, EC was confirmed through exhibiting antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities in breast cancer cells… tea catechins affected receptor-mediated pathways that are associated with proliferation and apoptosis; inhibiting the invasive behavior of breast carcinoma cells by reducing levels of the angiogenesis factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)... (Cheng, et. al.)

This study review highlighted how green tea catechins, including EGCG, can inhibit tumor development, slow down cancer cell growth, prevent cancer metastasis, and hinder angiogenesis.

Did you know Cordyceps militaris can also inhibit tumor angiogenesis? Check the potent anticancer effects of cordyceps mushrooms

If you’re looking for a natural, organic, delicious drink that may just prevent cancer,our mushroom matcha tea might be what you need. This unique blend combines the powerful properties of matcha with the health-promoting effects of cordyceps mushrooms

Mushroom Matcha Box - 10 Compostable Packets

Anticancer Catechins to Fight Oxidative Stress and Kill Cancer Cells

We’ve already mentioned that EGCG belongs to a larger group of polyphenols, called catechins. Matcha contains other types of these powerful antioxidants, like epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin gallate (ECG). These compounds work together to bolster matcha’s anticancer potential. 

How catechins help fight cancer. Source:

Fighting oxidative stress is one of the main jobs of antioxidants. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), also called free radicals, and the body’s ability to neutralize them. This imbalance can lead to serious cell damage and the development of many serious health conditions, like cancer. 

Catechins in matcha aim to neutralize free radicals and prevent cellular damage, which can also help in cancer prevention and treatment.  

2018 study found that matcha may help reduce the chance of breast cancer by preventing oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OMM) in cancer cells. 

…the therapeutic effects of green tea catechins on breast tumorigenesis were evaluated out using pre-clinical models… it has been demonstrated that a key component of green tea, namely [catechins], behaves as an anti-oxidant and shows anti-tumor effects against breast cancer cells. 

Oxidative mitochondrial metabolism is the process by which cells turn nutrients, like glucose, into energy through a set of chemical reactions that occur inside the mitochondria. By retarding OMM in cancer cells, matcha’s catechins seem to slow the spread of cancer.

Similarly to EGCG, catechins can also disrupt the formation of new blood vessels that feed tumors and prevent the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body.Studies have shown that “oral administration of green tea catechins for 1 year significantly reduced the progression of high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia to prostate cancer.” 

Anticancer Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll is matcha’s vibrant green pigment and is essential for the process of photosynthesis. Its antioxidant activity helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. By reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, inhibiting cancer-promoting enzymes, and preventing DNA damage, chlorophyll may play a role in potentially reducing the risk of cancer.

Studies suggest that “various chlorophylls have been shown in cell culture to alter the expression of genes important to carcinogen metabolism.” Chlorophyll and its derivatives may have anticancer effects through several potential mechanisms: 

  1. Modulating xenobiotic metabolism. Chlorophyll may alter how the body metabolizes and eliminates potential carcinogens.
  2. Inducing apoptosis. Chlorophyll may promote programmed cell death in cancer cells.
  3. Inhibiting oxidative damage. Chlorophyll has antioxidant properties that may reduce DNA damage that causes cancer.

While chlorophyll's antioxidant and detoxifying properties are promising, research on its direct effects on cancer is still limited. Based on the previous and a small number of other studies, here’s what we know so far about the anticancer role of chlorophyll:

  • Chlorophyll is a detoxifier. It has potential to bind to and eliminate certain carcinogens from the body. This detoxification process may help reduce exposure to harmful compounds and further support cancer prevention.
  • As a natural antioxidant, chlorophyll helps neutralize harmful free radicals in the body. Fighting oxidative stress is not only vital for treating cancer but also for improving immune function, lowering inflammation in the body, and fighting many other health conditions caused by harmful free radicals.
  • Speaking of inflammation, chronic inflammation increases the risk of developing cancer. Chlorophyll's anti-inflammatory properties may help modulate the inflammatory response, which could potentially hinder cancer progression.
  • The concentration of chlorophyll in matcha, combined with other beneficial compounds, may enhance the absorption of essential nutrients, supporting the body's overall function and contributing to better health.

Matcha’s Vitamins and Minerals to Boost Health and Prevent Cancer

Matcha is made from the whole green tea leaf, which means it retains a significant portion of vitamins and minerals found in the Camellia sinensis plant. Vitamins and minerals are essential for boosting the immune system and supporting overall health, but they don’t seem to have a direct anticancer effect. 

Instead, the abundance of vitamins and minerals supports a variety of important physiological functions in the body, such as:

  • Boosting the immune system
  • Promoting DNA repair
  • Maintaining healthy cell growth

Let’s make a list of all the vitamins and minerals in matcha that aid our immune system in the fight against cancer.

  1. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It helps protect cells from oxidative stress, supports the immune system, and assists in collagen production for healthy skin and tissues.
  2. Vitamin E has antioxidant properties that keep blood vessels healthy. That’s why matcha is a natural ally to heart health, protecting against cardiovascular diseases. 
  3. Potassium is an essential mineral for maintaining proper fluid balance, muscle function, and blood pressure regulation.
  4. Calcium is critical for strong bones and teeth, as well as nerve transmission and muscle function.
  5. Iron plays a role in oxygen transport in the blood and energy production.
  6. Zinc supports immune function, cell division, and wound healing.

Consuming diverse, nutrient-rich foods like matcha as part of a healthy diet can enhance the body's natural defense mechanisms and contribute to reducing the risk of chronic diseases, including cancer.

We are yet to find a healthier, more delicious, and more attractive way of consuming matcha than our cordyceps matcha tea. In combination with cordyceps mushrooms, this fragrant beverage will transform your health and bring vitality to every day. 

Mushroom Matcha - 30 Serving Jar

Can Matcha Tea Help With Chemotherapy?

While matcha tea itself is not a substitute for medical treatments like chemotherapy, it may offer some supportive properties during and after chemotherapy. According to Cheng, et. al., “green tea has been used as a sensitizer to improve the radiotherapy effect of prostate cancer.”

Due to their various health benefits, green tea polyphenols are increasingly used for cancer prevention or as an adjuvant in chemotherapy. Previous studies have demonstrated that combining chemotherapeutic drugs with green tea could reduce cancer risk, improve survival rates among cancer patients, and decrease chemotherapy-associated side effects. (Cao, et. al.)

Here are some ways matcha tea may offer support during chemotherapy:

  • Reducing nausea and digestive issues. Chemotherapy often leads to nausea and digestive discomfort in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Some people find that consuming matcha green tea can help alleviate these symptoms and provide comfort.
  • Staying well-hydrated is crucial during chemotherapy. Drinking matcha tea can contribute to fluid intake and hydration.
  • Boosting energy and mental clarity. Chemotherapy can be physically and emotionally draining. Matcha tea contains caffeine and L-theanine, which may provide a sustained energy boost and promote mental clarity without the jittery side effects. (Read more about the jittery-less effects of matcha right here.)

In combination with matcha, cordyceps can help cancer patients cope with nasty chemotherapy-induced side effects

Can I Drink Matcha Every Day?

There is no reason why you shouldn’t indulge in a nice cup of ceremonial grade matcha tea every day if you stick to the recommended daily amounts. The myriad health benefits and nutrient-rich profile make it an excellent supplement to any diet. 

1–2 cups of green tea matcha every day is a great way to reap the benefits of matcha. Once your body adjusts to the effects of matcha, you can increase the number of cups per day. 

Is Too Much Matcha Bad for You?

Drinking green tea matcha in excessive amounts can cause some mild side effects, like an increased heart rate, anxiety, an upset stomach, or diarrhea. Don’t forget that matcha contains plenty of caffeine, which can cause some jitters and caffeine-induced side effects if taken in excessive amounts. 

The recommended daily consumption is between 2 and 4 grams of matcha powder. That amount can yield anywhere from one to even four cups of tea, depending on how strong you like it. If you’re a beginner, start with smaller amounts. Once your body adjusts to the beneficial effects of matcha, you can drink more cups per day. 

That’s why our 10-single unique blends of matcha and cordyceps are perfect for everyday enjoyment. Each sachet contains 3.5g of the premium matcha cordyceps powder. Dump the contents of one sachet into your mug, pour hot water over it, mix well—or use our electric matcha frother to whip it to perfection—and enjoy. 

Mushroom Matcha Box - 10 Compostable Packets

Benefits of Drinking Matcha

While the main role of antioxidants is to reduce oxidative stress, the benefits of matcha and its powerful antioxidative properties extend beyond just combating free radicals. Antioxidants are also involved in many important physiological processes, such as:

…in addition to the direct induction of oxidative stress, metabolic disorders underlying every single disease can also indirectly generate an oxidative microenvironment, for example via the induction of a local immune response. On this basis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs, such as polyphenols and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have been proposed in the treatment of different neurodegenerative diseases. (Brambilla, et. al.)

  • Boosting the immune system. Antioxidants support the immune system by protecting the immune cells and enhancing their function. A 2014 study found that “immune cells contain high levels of antioxidant vitamins due to their high polyunsaturated fatty acids content and sensitive to external ROS, which are probably providing protection versus lipid peroxidation and immunosuppression.” 
  • Boosting energy. Matcha's antioxidant activity contributes to increasing energy levels in a healthy way. Antioxidants promote a sense of alertness, which makes matcha ideal for sharpening focus and mental clarity. Matcha also contains caffeine, but unlike other caffeinated beverages, it does not produce caffeine-induced jittery sensations. Instead, matcha gives a natural and sustained energy boost without the nervous energy
  • Aiding in weight management. Matcha's chemical composition, along with its catechins and EGCG content, may support metabolic processes, potentially aiding in weight loss and maintenance. These compounds may help increase the body's calorie-burning processes, called thermogenesis and fat oxidation. So next time you’re on a weight loss journey, start preparing a nice cup of matcha tea in the morning. 
  • Supporting skin health. Matcha is extremely beneficial for the skin. It’s no secret that antioxidants and other bioactive compounds found in matcha tea give the skin a nice glow, reducing UV-induced damage and signs of aging. 

Did you know cordyceps is also fantastic for promoting healthy skin? This fungus is high in anti-inflammatory compounds that provide moisture to the skin. The antioxidant properties of cordyceps can contribute to reducing signs of aging.

That’s exactly why we combined matcha and cordyceps to make our one-of-a-kind mushroom matcha tea. Have a sip; your skin will thank you. 

Mushroom Matcha - 30 Serving Jar

Matcha for Cancer FAQ

Can cancer patients drink matcha? 

Cancer patients can drink matcha as part of a balanced diet, but it is important to consult with their cancer care team or healthcare professionals before making any dietary changes during cancer treatment. Matcha contains bioactive compounds such as antioxidants, which have been the subject of scientific studies for their potential health benefits. However, matcha should not be seen as a replacement for conventional cancer care but instead used as a complementary therapy.

Is matcha powder anti-cancer? 

Matcha powder, like green tea, contains bioactive compounds with potential health benefits, including antioxidants like epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Antioxidants help neutralize harmful free radicals in the body, which can contribute to oxidative stress and potentially increase cancer risk. Some scientific studies, including epidemiologic and preclinical research, have explored the properties of green tea, including matcha, and their potential effects on reducing cancer risk. 

Why is matcha so healthy?

With its potent blend of antioxidants, amino acids, caffeine, and immuno-protective vitamins and minerals, matcha stands out as an excellent choice for enhancing overall health. Incorporating matcha into your diet on a regular basis can be a natural and enjoyable way to support overall health. As a natural product, it offers immune-protective vitamins and minerals that contribute to a stronger and more resilient body. 

As with any dietary element, it's essential to strike a balance and avoid excessive tea consumption. Embrace the benefits of matcha as part of a health-conscious lifestyle and savor the many advantages it brings to your daily routine.

Is matcha green tea anti inflammatory?

Matcha green tea contains anti-inflammatory compounds. Clinical trials and epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that green tea contains compounds like catechins, particularly EGCG, that possess anti-inflammatory effects. These catechins act as potent antioxidants, neutralizing free radicals and reducing oxidative stress, which can contribute to inflammation.

The Japanese powdered green tea, matcha, contains high amounts of substances with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It has promising potential health benefits, mainly through a high concentration of catechins. With regular consumption, it may support the body’s efforts to maintain health and prevent disease. (Kochman, et. al.

Is matcha better than green tea for cancer? 

Matcha and green tea both come from the Camellia sinensis plant, so they share similar bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. Matcha is made from whole ground tea leaves, which may result in higher concentrations of certain compounds compared to traditional steeped green tea. Both matcha and green tea have been studied for their potential health benefits, particularly for cancer patients.

Who should not drink matcha? 

Individuals who are sensitive to caffeine should be careful when drinking matcha. Excessive caffeine intake can lead to adverse effects, including nervousness, insomnia, and an increased heart rate. People with certain medical conditions, such as heart arrhythmias, anxiety disorders, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), may need to limit their caffeine intake. Pregnant or nursing women should also seek medical advice regarding their caffeine intake, including matcha consumption.

Does matcha remove toxins? 

While matcha contains antioxidants that may help neutralize harmful free radicals, it does not directly target or remove toxins from the body. The body's natural detoxification process is primarily carried out by the liver and kidneys, which work to filter and eliminate waste products and toxins from the bloodstream. 

General health-promoting practices, such as staying well-hydrated, eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and avoiding harmful substances, can support the body's natural detoxification mechanisms. 

Do they use matcha in Japanese tea ceremonies?

Matcha is an important aspect of Japanese tea culture and is frequently used in traditional tea ceremonies. The preparation and presentation of green tea are the main components of traditional Japanese teas, also known as chanoyu or sado.

Loose leaf tea is frequently ground into a powder and whisked with hot water using a matcha whisk made of bamboo. Tea bags are rarely used in tea ceremonies since the emphasis is on the ceremony and presentation of the tea.

How do you make a matcha latte?

For a good matcha latte, you need great matcha powder. Here’s how to make the best matcha latte. 


  • 1–2 teaspoons matcha (you can use one packet of our matcha tea)
  • ¼ cup hot water
  • ¼ cup warmed coconut milk (or any milk of choice)
  • Maple syrup, honey, stevia, or sweetener of choice, optional


  1. Spoon the matcha into a large mug or a matcha bowl. Add the hot water and whisk briskly, in an up and down motion, until frothy, about 30 seconds or so. If you don’t have a traditional matcha whisk, you can use a regular whisk or a milk frother.)
  2. Add the coconut milk and whisk until well combined.
  3. Taste and add additional water, coconut milk, and/or sweetener to your liking.

And that’s it. Your mushroom matcha latte is ready for a spritely morning energy boost.

Can you drink green tea during chemo?

Matcha green tea, a popular beverage known for its health benefits, contains bioactive compounds and powerful antioxidants called catechins. Scientific studies have shown that combining green tea extract or catechins with anticancer drugs can enhance treatment effectiveness and reduce risk of experiencing unpleasant side effects in cancer patients. 

Recent studies suggest that “the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and green tea extract or tea polyphenols could synergistically enhance treatment efficacy and reduce the adverse side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer patients.”


Sokary, S., Al-Asmakh, M., Zakaria, Z., & Bawadi, H. (2022, November 23).The therapeutic potential of matcha tea: A critical review on human and animal studies. PubMed Central (PMC).

Milligan, S. A., Burke, P., Coleman, D. T., Bigelow, R. L., Steffan, J. J., Carroll, J. L., Williams, B. J., & Cardelli, J. A. (2009, August 1).The Green Tea Polyphenol EGCG Potentiates the Antiproliferative Activity of c-Met and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors in Non–small Cell Lung Cancer Cells. American Association for Cancer Research.

Almatroodi, S. A., Almatroudi, A., Khan, A. A., Alhumaydhi, F. A., Alsahli, M. A., & Rahmani, A. H. (2020, July 9).Potential Therapeutic Targets of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG), the Most Abundant Catechin in Green Tea, and Its Role in the Therapy of Various Types of Cancer. PubMed Central (PMC).

Chen, B. H., Hsieh, C. H., Tsai, S. Y., Wang, C. Y., & Wang, C. C. (2020, March 20).Anticancer effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate nanoemulsion on lung cancer cells through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway - Scientific Reports. Nature.

A review on anti-cancer effect of green tea catechins. (2020, September 8). A Review on Anti-cancer Effect of Green Tea Catechins - ScienceDirect.

Bonuccelli, G., Sotgia, F., & Lisanti, M. P. (2018, August 23).Matcha green tea (MGT) inhibits the propagation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), by targeting mitochondrial metabolism, glycolysis and multiple cell signalling pathways. PubMed Central (PMC).

Cao, J., Han, J., Xiao, H., Qiao, J., & Han, M. (2016, December 14).Effect of Tea Polyphenol Compounds on Anticancer Drugs in Terms of Anti-Tumor Activity, Toxicology, and Pharmacokinetics. PubMed Central (PMC).

Kochman, J., Jakubczyk, K., Antoniewicz, J., Mruk, H., & Janda, K. (2020, December 27).Health Benefits and Chemical Composition of Matcha Green Tea: A Review. PubMed Central (PMC).

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