Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is in the B vitamin family of vitamins and is the largest and most structurally complex vitamin. Vitamin B12 is essential for the proper metabolism and function of all human organs and systems.

 

B12 is involved in the methylation pathway.

 

B12 is involved in a biochemical process in the body known as the methylation pathway, in which a carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms are transferred as a methyl group (CH3) from one substance to another. Methylation is an important process in the body and is involved in regulating activity of the neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular, reproductive, hematologic (blood), and detoxification systems. Specifically, methylation is required for DNA production, neurotransmitter production, detoxification, histamine metabolism, estrogen metabolism, eye health, fat metabolism, cellular energy and liver health.


Vitamin B12 is required for ‘energy’.

First, a quick breakdown of the elusive term ‘energy.’ People associate energy with feelings of well-being, stamina and vitality. This ‘energy’ results in our ability to undertake daily physical and intellectual activities and engage in social relationships. On the opposite end of the spectrum, ‘fatigue’, is experienced as a sense of energy depletion. While a lot of different factors can contribute to both a sense of energy and fatigue, including sleep and stress, we’ll focus here on the three reasons B12 can contribute to a sense of energy.
 

B12 is required for the production of cellular energy or adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

In humans, macronutrients such as carbohydrates, fat and protein provide the fuel required to maintain biochemical and structural integrity, as well as to perform physical activity and enable muscle building. Ingested food is digested by enzymes that break down carbohydrates to sugars, lipids to fatty acids, and proteins to amino acids. Sugars, fatty acids and amino acids then enter cells, where they are oxidized (think: burned as fuel for the engine) and ultimately produce chemical energy as ATP that can be used elsewhere in the cell. For a sense of what ATP does, consider this: The adult human brain makes up only 2% of the body weight, but it consumes about 20% of the ATP. ATP is also the source of energy that is used to power the movement of contraction in working muscles. ATP is not stored in cells, so once muscle contraction starts, the cell must be able to make ATP rapidly. Vitamin B12 is a cofactor for an important enzyme in the citric acid cycle, the process that the cell goes through to produce ATP. This particular reaction that B12 controls occurs during the oxidation of certain fatty acids and the catabolism of ketogenic amino acids.
 

B12 is required for neurotransmitter production.

B12 is a necessary cofactor in the production of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. Because of this, B12 affects mood, emotions, and sleeping and deficiency can lead to psychiatric disorders. While serotonin has a wide variety of functions in the body, it is known as the happy chemical because it contributes to a sensation of wellbeing and happiness. Dopamine is an important chemical messenger involved in reward, motivation, memory, attention and regulating body movements.
 

B12 is required for oxygen transport.

Oxygen transport requires red blood cells. A particular type of anemia, a condition in which you lack healthy red blood cells, related to B12 and folate deficiency is known as megaloblastic anemia. During anemia, when the levels of hemoglobin (the oxygen carrier) are decreased, oxygen delivery is impaired, with consequences for cognitive and physical performance, as well as perceived fatigue and tiredness.

 

Only two forms of vitamin B12 are biologically active.

The biologically active forms of vitamin B12 are methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin. Many nutraceuticals will include vitamin B12 as cyanocobalamin. Be advised, the liver must first “detoxify” and modify cyanocobalamin to form methylcobalamin, with cyanide as a by-product. In other words, the utilization of cyanocobalamin requires an extra step to make it biologically active, and contributes to toxic load by releasing cyanide into the body. While the amount of cyanide contributed by these sub-optimal B12 supplements is much lower than the toxic level of cyanide, why choose products with poison at all, especially ones that are less biologically active? Hone Presence blend provides vitamin B12 in its already biologically active form, without any toxic by-products.
We care about what goes into your body, and we want efficient use of nutrients to contribute to your optimized vitality.

 

Vitamin B12 Deficiency is common.

Vitamin B12 deficiency is mainly due to limited dietary intake of animal foods or poor absorption of the vitamin. Evidence for B12 deficiency was found in more than half of UK vegans, and about 5% of vegetarians. Both the elderly as well as individuals taking acid-reducing medications are especially at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency due to the lack of stomach acid and its role in B12 absorption. While overt vitamin B12 deficiency is known in these groups, many more may experience sub-clinical deficiency, in which B12 is within the “normal” accepted range, but the level is at the low end of the range. Sub-clinical deficiency can lead to negative effects on pregnancy, blood vessels, cognitive performance, bone density, and eye health.

 

Why we chose vitamin B12 for our Presence blend.

We chose to include vitamin B12 in our Hone Presence Blend because of all the above facts as well as how we personally feel our physical and mental performance improve when we are taking adequate quality vitamin B12. When we formulated Hone Presence, we had our consumers’ optimal mental and physical vitality in mind, and vitamin B12 was a crucial addition to our other quality ingredients in Presence.  

 

References
Krzywański J, Mikulski T, Pokrywka A, et al. Vitamin B Status and Optimal Range for Hemoglobin Formation in Elite Athletes. Nutrients. 2020;12(4)
Oh R, Brown DL. Vitamin B12 deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67(5):979-86.
O'leary F, Samman S. Vitamin B12 in health and disease. Nutrients. 2010;2(3):299-316.
Tardy AL, Pouteau E, Marquez D, Yilmaz C, Scholey A. Vitamins and Minerals for Energy, Fatigue and Cognition: A Narrative Review of the Biochemical and Clinical Evidence. Nutrients. 2020;12(1)